Spurs and the Great West

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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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John Martin Reservoir State Park is a state park in Colorado. It contains John Martin Reservoir, which is the second largest body of water in Colorado by capacity. It is also known for being a prime birdwatching location. Bent County, Colorado has been documented to have over 400 different species of birds. The namesake reservoir of the park is created by a 118-foot tall and 2.6-mile long dam, which goes by the name of John Martin Dam.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Vicente Mardueno
Born:1865
Died:1933
Vicente was born in Santa Barbara to Jesus Mardueno who was already a bit and spur maker. Vicente learned the trade from his father and would focus his skills on silver inlay and engraving, he was known for doing inlay and engraving on his father’s bits. Vicente also worked with Abbie Hunt for a time, but would end up working as a gardener after his retirement from bit and spur making.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Your posts are still fascinating, sir, thanks for taking us places where most of us will never have the opportunity to go. I do have a question for you. I live near Jacksonville, Illinios, and there is a closed down factory call J. Capps and sons. Back when they were a going concern, they made blankets that were used for trade with Native Americans, they also made the fabric that military uniforms were manufactured from (I think) starting before the Civil War and up to WW2. The trade blankets were the two and three stripe types. I think it would be something your readers may find interesting if you can find any more info on it. Again, kudo's for what you have done, so far. Jim....
U.S. Marine Corps 1975-1979
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Thanks for the suggestion. It is a small world. I lived in Jacksonville for several years when young, many moons ago. :D

Walking through downtown Jacksonville, IL there are many wall murals. One of them is “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show”. One of the stories of Cody was that he saw the Indians with Capps blankets at the reservations in the West. Later he found out they came from Jacksonville, a venue he played J.Capps and Sons made the Indian blankets from 1890 to 1927. In the early days J. Capps sold the blankets to the U.S. Government Indian Agencies in the Western States.

Research has not explained how the company started or why they made Indian blankets, as most of the original records of the mill are gone.
A circular from 1890 describes early Indian “style” blankets being produced as Swansdown, Prairie State, and Sucker, with scarlet-and-black plaid, solid gray, and solid white in colors. By 1892 the American Indian Blanket Mills had became a division of J. Capps and Sons Woolen Mills. This was the start of an American wide depression, added to when Capps was dealing with low profits and worker’s strikes. The company’s Board of Directors might have looked at the Indian blankets as their saving grace.

Between the awards and promotion of the 1893 Colombian Exposition and an endorsement from Cody the name “Capps” became a household brand name. Sales staff sent circulars to customers and retail shop owners to introduce the new Indian blankets line. Capps sales representative, John G. Piper “who will visit you in due season” sold blankets local and abroad. Do to the lost of company records it is not known how many salesmen their were, but 1900 catalog, “ Tale of a Sheep” boasted that there were at lease 16 salesmen traveling in 20 states. The 1903 magazine “House Beautiful” created a colorful advertisement with a drawing of a Plains Tepee and the bold words “Art Indian Blankets” written across the page.

When Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show came to Jacksonville on August 6, 1909, Cody posed with the Capps Indian blankets. This picture was used in both the 1911 and 1913 catalogs, with the caption “I am very pleased to say, that for characteristic Indian designs, beauty and brilliancy of color, and for quality, the “CAPPS INDIAN BLANKET” is superior to any blanket that I am acquainted with, made for the Indian trade”.- W.F. Cody, Cody Wyoming, July 28, 1911.

The publicity for the blankets went nationwide in such publications as Saturday Evening Post, The Delineator, and The Mutual News. The blankets were even sold at high end stores, such as Abercrombie & Fitch of New York. The blankets were also sold in a coat version. The National League Baseball Team, Philadelphia Athletics, bought coats for Charles Albert, a Chippewa Native, who was a member of the team’s winning World Series titles of 1910, 1911, and 1913.

The bright and colorful catalogs of 1911 and 1913 include the many Native American designs. For example, the 1911 catalog had 16 patterns to chose from. These 60” x 72” wool blankets sold for $7.50. The 1913 catalog included 6 additional patterns, but does not mention the price of the blankets. The styles in both catalogs include: Hualpai, Navajo, Mohawk, Cheyenne, Shoshone, Kiowa, Klamath, Sioux, Papago, Umatilla, Ponca, Flathead, Osage, Moqui, Crow, Pueblo, Apache, Zuni, Comanche, and Arapahoe. Research does not indicate if anyone from the company went to the reservations to study any designs. The company finally discontinued the Indian blanket line in 1927.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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This is a list of nicknames for the western states. A single state may have more than one nickname. Not all of these nicknames are considered official.

Arizona Grand Canyon State
Arkansas Natural State
California Golden State
Colorado Centennial State
Idaho Gem State
Indiana Hoosier State
Iowa Hawkeye State, Corn State
Kansas Sunflower State, Jayhawker State
Louisiana Pelican State, Creoloe State, Sugar State
Minnesota North Star State, Gopher State, Land of 10,000 Lakes, Land of Sky-Blue Waters
Missouri Show Me State
Montana Treasure State, Big Sky Country
Nebraska Cornhusker State, Beef State
Nevada Silver State, Sagebrush State, Battle Born State
New Mexico Land of Enchantment, Sunshine State
North Dakota Flickertail State, Sioux State, Peace Garden State
Oklahoma Sooner State
Oregon Beaver State
South Dakota Mount Rushmore State
Texas Lone Star State
Utah Beehive State
Washington Evergreen State, Chinook State
Wisconsin Badger State, America’s Dairyland
Wyoming Equality State
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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The Owyhee River Wilderness is located on the high basalt plateaus of Owyhee County in southwestern Idaho in the western United States. The wilderness area is named after and protects the upper Owyhee River, its tributaries, and the surrounding desert canyon landscape. Whitewater rafting is a popular recreational activity in this wilderness area. Managed by the Bureau of Land Management, it is the second-largest U.S. Wilderness Area that is not located within a National Forest, National Park, or National Wildlife Refuge. About 67.3 miles of the Owyhee River is classified as a wild river.

The Owyhee River Wilderness is irregularly shaped, generally following the course of the Owyhee River, South Fork Owyhee River, Little Owyhee River, Deep Creek, and Battle Creek, as well as including some plateau lands. The wilderness area stretches from the Oregon-Idaho border in the west to the Duck Valley Indian Reservation in the east to the Nevada-Idaho border in the south. The rivers and creeks are deeply eroded into the Owyhee Plateau, resulting in deep canyons. The only roads are rough and there are few trails. There are challenging whitewater rivers.

Wilderness areas do not allow motorized or mechanical equipment including bicycles. Although camping and fishing are allowed with proper permit, no roads or buildings are constructed and there is also no logging or mining, in compliance with the 1964 Wilderness Act. Wilderness areas within National Forests and Bureau of Land Management areas also allow hunting in season.

The Owyhee River Wilderness lies within the Owyhee Desert, part of the northern Basin and Range ecoregion, although hydrologically the wilderness area is within the Snake River – Columbia River drainage. The region is home to a varying amount of animal and plant life. Animals such as bighorn sheep, cougars, prairie falcons, bobcats, and pronghorn live through the region. A variety of plant life such as lupine, Eriogonum salicornioides, Phacelia lutea var., and bitterroot can also be found in the area.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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A great Plains Indian tomahawk from around 1870.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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A knife by Bill Burke of Boise, Idaho.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Sandpainting is the art of pouring coloured sands, and powdered pigments from minerals or crystals, or pigments from other natural or synthetic sources onto a surface to make a fixed or unfixed sand painting. Unfixed sand paintings have a long established cultural history in numerous social groupings around the globe, and are often temporary, ritual paintings prepared for religious or healing ceremonies. This form of art is also referred to as drypainting.

In the sandpainting of southwestern Native Americans (the most famous of which are the Navajo, the Medicine Man (or Hatałii) paints loosely upon the ground of a hogan, where the ceremony takes place, or on a buckskin or cloth tarpaulin, by letting the colored sands flow through his fingers with control and skill. There are 600 to 1,000 different traditional designs for sandpaintings known to the Navajo. They do not view the paintings as static objects, but as spiritual, living beings to be treated with great respect. More than 30 different sandpaintings may be associated with one ceremony.

The colours for the painting are usually accomplished with naturally coloured sand, crushed gypsum (white), yellow ochre, red sandstone, charcoal and a mixture of charcoal and gypsum (blue). Brown can be made by mixing red and black; red and white make pink. Other colouring agents include corn meal, flower pollen, or powdered roots and bark.

The paintings are for healing purposes only. Many of them contain images of Yeibicheii (the Holy People). While creating the painting, the medicine man will chant, asking the yeibicheii to come into the painting and help heal the patient.

When the medicine man finishes painting, he checks its accuracy. The order and symmetry of the painting symbolise the harmony which a patient wishes to reestablish in his or her life. The accuracy of a sandpainting is believed to determine its efficacy as a sacred tool. The patient will be asked to sit on the sandpainting as the medicine man proceeds with the healing chant. It is claimed the sandpainting acts as a portal to attract the spirits and allow them to come and go. Practitioners believe sitting on the sandpainting helps the patient to absorb spiritual power, while in turn the Holy People will absorb the illness and take it away. Afterward, when the sandpainting has served its purpose, it is considered to be toxic, since it has absorbed the illness. For this reason, the painting is destroyed. Because of the sacred nature of the ceremonies, the sandpaintings are begun, finished, used and destroyed within 12 hours.

The ceremonies involving sandpaintings are usually done in sequences, termed "chants", lasting a certain number of days depending on the ceremony. At least one fresh, new sandpainting is made for each day.

Authentic sandpaintings are rarely photographed, so as to not disrupt the flow of the ceremony. For many reasons, medicine men will seldom allow outsiders inside a sacred ceremony. Because so many outsiders are curious about sandpainting, some medicine men may create pieces for exhibition purposes only, using reversed colours and variations. To create an authentic sandpainting solely for viewing would be a profane act. The sandpaintings for sale in shops and on the Internet are commercially produced and contain deliberate errors, as the real sandpaintings are considered sacred.

The earliest credited instance of traditional Navajo sandpaintings (being rendered in coloured sands as opposed to tapestry or other media) being created in a permanent form for sale, have been traced to between 1945 and 1955. The main credit is generally given to a Navajo Hatałii named Fred Stevens, Jr. (Grey Squirrel), who developed the primary method of "permatizing" for commercial sandpaintings that is still used.

Navajo sandpainting, photo by H.S. Poley, published c. 1890–1908, Library of Congress
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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The Ochoco Mountains are a range in central Oregon in the United States. They were formed when Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic rocks were slowly uplifted by volcanic eruptions to form the Clarno Formation. Today, the highest point in the range is Lookout Mountain. The dominant vegetation on the west side of the range is old-growth ponderosa pine; on the east side, western juniper is common. The western area of the mountains is administered by the Ochoco National Forest, while the southeastern section is part of the Malheur National Forest. The Ochoco Mountains are used for hiking, camping, bird watching, rockhounding, and hunting, as well as cross-country skiing in the winter.

The Ochoco Mountains run 114 miles north to south and 86 miles east to west.

The Ochoco Mountains in central Oregon form the western end of the Blue Mountains province. The Blue Mountains are not a single cohesive range, but rather a complex of ranges and inter-mountain basins and valleys that extend from southeast Washington into central Oregon, ending near Prineville. The Ochoco portion of the province is part of a wide uplifted plateau made of rocks from the Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic periods (300 to 200 million years old) that were transported by the Pacific Plate and accreted in the late Mesozoic era (about 100 million years ago) as part of a vast shallow sea, then slowly uplifted by volcanic eruptions during the Eocene epoch (50 to 37 million years ago) to form the Clarno Formation. From 37 to 17 million years ago, eruptions in the western Cascade Range spread ash across eastern Oregon, forming the John Day Formation. From 17 to 14 million years ago, major volcanic eruptions covered much of the province with basalt flows, creating the Columbia River Basalt Group. Since then, continued faulting and uplift has resulted in a deeply eroded landscape. Steins Pillar is an excellent example of this erosion.

During the Eocene epoch, central Oregon volcanoes deposited layers of lava and ash up to 1,000 feet thick over the area that is now the Ochoco Mountains. Large mudflows called lahars were also common during that period. These mudflows often covered and preserved the plants and animals, resulting in fossil beds. Today, fossils of prehistoric trees, fruits, nuts, and flowers can be found in the Ochoco Mountains along with fossilized animals including horses, camels, rhinoceros, and hippopotami.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) are herbivorous burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. The five species are: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison's, Utah, and Mexican prairie dogs. They are a type of ground squirrel, found in North America. In Mexico, prairie dogs are found primarily in the northern states, which lie at the southern end of the Great Plains: northeastern Sonora, north and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, and northern Tamaulipas. In the United States, they range primarily to the west of the Mississippi River, though they have also been introduced in a few eastern locales. They are also found in the Canadian Prairies. Despite the name, they are not actually canines.

Prairie dogs are considered a keystone species with their mounds often being used by other species. Their mound-building encourages grass development and renewal of topsoil, with rich mineral, and nutrient renewal in the soil which can be crucial for soil quality and agriculture. They are extremely important in the food chain, being important to the diet of many animals such as the black-footed ferret, swift fox, golden eagle, red tailed hawk, American badger, and coyote. Other species, such as the golden-mantled ground squirrel, mountain plover, and the burrowing owl, also rely on prairie dog burrows for nesting areas. Grazing species, such as plains bison, pronghorn, and mule deer have shown a proclivity for grazing on the same land used by prairie dogs. Prairie dogs have some of the most complex systems of communication and social structures in the animal kingdom.

The prairie dog habitat has been affected by direct removal by farmers, as well as the more obvious encroachment of urban development, which has greatly reduced their populations. The removal of prairie dogs "causes undesirable spread of brush", the costs of which to livestock range and soil quality often outweighs the benefits of removal. Other threats include disease. The prairie dog is protected in many areas to maintain local populations and ensure natural ecosystems and that they are not harmed.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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he National Museum of Toys and Miniatures, formerly known as the Kansas City Toy and Miniature Museum, is located on the campus of the University of Missouri Kansas City. (Bequeathed to the University in the 1960s, the home was originally designed for physician Herbert Tureman in 1906 by noted architect John McKecknie and completed by 1911.) Opened in 1982, the museum today boasts the world's largest collection of fine-scale miniatures and one of the nation's largest collections of antique toys on public display.

Boasting more than 33,000 square feet of exhibit space and a collection of more than 72,000 objects, the museum currently welcomes about 30,000 visitors a year. The museum has undergone two expansions in its more than 30 years of operation.

At its origin, the Museum combined the toy collection of Mary Harris Francis with the fine miniature collection of Barbara Hall Marshall; the two women were avid collectors as well as lifelong friends.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Forgotten western movies: Border Rangers is a 1950 American Western film directed by William Berke and starring Don Barry, Robert Lowery, Wally Vernon, and Pamela Blake.

When Texas Ranger George Standish (Eric Norden), who has been pursuing an outlaw gang led by Mungo (Robert Lowery), is killed by Mungo, his brother, Bob Standish (Don 'Red' Barry), joins the Rangers, with his first assignment from Ranger Captain McLain (Lyle Talbot) the capture of the Mungo gang, who hide out below El Paso in Mexico. Bob takes the identity of an outlaw he was forced to kill in the line of duty, and goes below the border with the plan of luring Mungo and his gang back to El Paso and into a trap set by the Rangers.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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Missouri Buttes are located in Crook County in northeast Wyoming on the northwest flank of the Black Hills Uplift. The buttes are 3.5 miles northwest of Devils Tower between the Little Missouri and the Belle Fourche rivers.

The Missouri Buttes consist of four separate summits which arise from an eroded mesa platform, the Butte Divide, which has an elevation of 4,650 feet . The butte peaks form a rough rectangle 0.5 x 0.65 mi. in size. The northwest butte is the highest with a summit at 5,374 feet. The northeast butte has an elevation of 5,212 feet, the southwest butte has an elevation of 5,020 feet and the southeast butte has an elevation of 5,055 feet. A small lake, the Missouri Buttes Lake, lies 800 meters west of the buttes.

As with Devils Tower, the buttes are composed of igneous intrusive phonolite which exhibits columnar jointing. The rocks of the buttes have been interpreted to be part of a laccolith, a magmatic stock or volcano conduits that became exposed at the surface after overlying rocks eroded away.
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Re: Spurs and the Great West

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The Paria Canyon-Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness is a 112,500 acres wilderness area located in northern Arizona and southern Utah, United States, within the arid Colorado Plateau region. The wilderness is composed of broad plateaus, tall escarpments, and deep canyons.The Paria River flows through the wilderness before joining the Colorado River at Lee's Ferry, Arizona.

The U.S. Congress designated the wilderness area in 1984 and it was largely incorporated into the new Vermilion Cliffs National Monument proclaimed in 2000 by executive order of President Bill Clinton. Both the wilderness area and the National Monument are administered by the federal Bureau of Land Management.

The Colorado Plateau and its river basins are of immense value in the Earth sciences, specifically chronostratigraphy, as the region contains multiple terrain features exposing miles-thick contiguous rock columns that geologists and paleobiologists use as reference strata of the geologic record.

Ancient petroglyphs, granaries, and campsites indicate that ancestral Puebloan people utilized the Wilderness between AD 200 and AD 1200. They hunted mule deer and bighorn sheep and grew corn, beans, and squash in the lower end of the canyon. Paiute people later occupied and traveled much of the area before Europeans arrived. Because no habitations or large villages have been found in the canyon, researchers believe the canyon was primarily used as a travel route.

The first documented Europeans in the area were Fathers Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante of the Domínguez–Escalante expedition. The expedition stopped at the mouth of the Paria River in 1776 after they unsuccessfully attempted to establish a route from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Monterey, California. The 19th century drew outlaws who hid out in the Wilderness and prospectors who mined gold, uranium, and other minerals.

Many bird species are found in the Wilderness, including bald eagle, golden eagle, peregrine falcon, red-tailed hawk, great horned owl, and Cooper's hawk. Other birds seen in the Wilderness include white-throated swift, violet-green swallow, rock wren, canyon wren, killdeer, cliff swallow, black-throated sparrow, ruby-crowned kinglet, blue-gray gnatcatcher, black-chinned hummingbird, great blue heron, flycatchers and various species of duck. The Wilderness was the location of a 1996 release of captively-bred endangered California condors in an attempt to re-introduce them to the wild.

Mammals found in the Wilderness include mule deer, bobcat, fox, mountain lion, porcupine, beaver, coyote, jack rabbit, cottontail rabbit, ground squirrels, kangaroo rat, and various other rodent species. Desert bighorn sheep were successfully reintroduced to Paria Canyon in the 1980s and are usually found in the cliffs and crags of the lower canyon.
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